According to Moustaka& Constantinidis (2010), workplace environment is one of the most significant sources of working stress while the profession of nursing has been regarded as stressful based upon the tedious physical labor, constant human suffering, longest working hours, staffing and interpersonal relationships that are the imperative to the work nurses perform (White, 2005). With performing such tasks and confronting regular events on daily basis it has been reported that amongst many profession nursing is the most stress-filled profession. It has been reported that there has been diverse effects on working nurses (Brooker& Nicol, 2003). Hire the best research paper writing services
The aim of this systematic study is to examine the source and consequences of stress on productivity, adequacy and efficiency of the working nurses’. Moreover, it also aims to investigate the effects on the physical and mental personal health and work behavior of nurses. In the study dependent and independent variables will be studied and evidenced while hypotheses are also developed on the basis of stress effects on the working nurses.
In order to conduct the study qualitative research method is used and closed-ended questionnaire are filled up by the nursing staff of Johns Hopkins Medicine (Baltimore), Maryland. Moreover, literature review of the study will be used to examine the previous literature and for collecting the material thus health and nursing journals database are found to be useful.
The analysis of hypotheses shows that dependent variables of the study have been influenced by the independent variables. In addition, it is also found that workplace stress affects the physical and mental health of nurses while also negatively affect the behavior which conversely influences the workplace behavior of nurses. Moreover, literature review identified different factors of workplace which is linked to stress. However, it is found that stress consequently results in lack of power, role ambiguity, and role conflict it also a big threat for the career development as well as achievement. Such threats are regarded as threat of redundancy and unclear and undervalued promotion prospects. Stress has also been found as major factor of reducing efficiency, decreasing performance capacity and lack of concerns for the colleagues and organization.
Due to increasing stress rate in nursing reported by different studies it has been recognized that stress has different effects on people concerning their personal attributes but mostly workload, strict and long working hours and human suffering are great threat to working nurses and these have been observed affecting negatively to both personal and professional efficiency and performance. However, for many decades it was considered that stress in health care is only related to particular units such as physical, psychological, and social aspects of the work environment but recently it has been reported that high levels of stress results in burnout and turnover which conversely affects the patient care. Studies have identified that stress and burnout in nursing affects the patient outcomes (White, 2005) and patient safety while other studies suggest that stress in health care badly affects the quality care provided by the nurses or health care department (Alexanderet al. 2006). Recommendations: Based on the findings of the research it is recommended that nurse welfare measures must be taken by the government (Federal and State) for improving the welfare of the nurses and it is also recommended that morale of the nurses should be boosted by involving them in the policy making and decision making process concerning care for the patients.
Stress effects, working nurses, stress factors, consequences.
Independent and Independent Variables
According to Holzemer (2009), defining the variables is the important aspect of the research and considered as significant to be measured, controlled and described so that research can be formed on the basis of authentic proofs. According to Moule& Goodman (2009), majorly variables are described briefly and divided into two major types namely Dependent Variable and Independent Variables. An independent variable is controlled by the researcher to determine the relationship to the observed result of the research and also called controlled or manipulated variable (Kamil& Moje, 2010). Dependent variable, according to Creswell (2009), is measured as a result of the learning experience and also called result or outcome variable.
For this research study two variables are developed and are as follows:
Independent and Dependent Variables for the Study
It is reported that stress affects the working nurses therefore this study aims to measure the“effects of stress on working nurses”. It is reported that stress can affect different aspects of working nurses. There are three dependent variables of the study. At first“stress has effects on the physical and mental health of nurses”,“stress also affects the workplace behavior of the nurses which inversely affects the workplace outcomes”.
Thus, the study will measure how and in what intense work stress can affect the physical as well as mental and workplace behavior of working nurses. Moreover it will also analyze how these effects inversely affect the workplace performance of the nurses.
HYPOTHESIS AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The study aims to examine the variables if workplace stress has any affect on the physical as well as mental health and workplace behavior of the nurses and how all these outcomes of the stress-filled occupation affects the workplace performance of the nurses. Thus, study has developed following hypotheses:
h1: Workplace stress in nursing affects the physical as well as mental health
h2: Workplace stress in nursing affects the workplace behavior of working nurses
h3: The resulted effects of the stress affect the workplace performance of the nurses
h0: Workplace has not as such deep rooted effects on the physical, mental and workplace behavior
Stress experienced in workplace by the employees is called workplace stress. The causes of the workplace stress may be due to number of reasons and there could be diverse factors involved such as poor working condition, excessive work load, and long hours of work, poor relationships with the bosses and risk and danger in the workplace environment. There is lack of data on the effects of the consequences of stress on the working nurses.
Since stress has been identified as an important psychological concept concerning affecting the health, well-being and work performance in negative dimensions, this study has developed that work stress in nursing has significant effects on the physical, mental and workplace behavior of the nurses. Moreover, it is also established that these outcomes of the stress has inverse effects on the workplace performance of the nursing staff.
The research will mainly focus on answering the following questions:
What are the elements that cause stress to working nurses?
What are the effects of the stress on the personal as well as professional attributes of nurses?
How does stress affect the workplace behavior of the nurses?
Is there any impact of these effects on the efficiency of workplace performance of the nurses?
How is stress dealt with or coped up to increase the performance level?
What measures are being taken by the government authority to ensure standard health care and welfare of the nurses?
According to McBurney& White (2005), research methods refer to systematic design which is followed to achieve the determined goals and objectives of the study. Walliman& Walliman (2010) explained that most commonly research methods are divided into quantitative, qualitative and participatory research methods. Each research method is with its own fundamental approaches, tools and techniques. According to Laurel (2003), since quantitative, qualitative and participatory approaches have different disciplinary origins they develop distinctive tools and each has its critique of the other approaches.
According to Wood& Haber (2006), in nursing research methodology are grouped into two categories namely quantitative and qualitative approach. Kothari (2008) argues that some studies in nursing have been undertaken using mixed methodology. Similarly, Leininger (1998) defines that qualitative methodology in nursing research studies includes methods such as ethnography or grounded theory and involves in-depth data collection from small number of subjects by using open-ended questionnaire and interviews or surveys. On the other hand, Maltbyet al. (2010) describe that quantitative research methodology includes approaches such as experiments and quasi-experiments. Quantitative research methodology often involves larger sample sizes, numeric data, and statistical analyses.
In order to select research methodology for this research study the following discussion aims to examine both qualitative and quantitative research methodology.
According to Miller& Dingwall (1997), qualitative research methodology involves analyzing and interpreting text for finding the meanings of descriptive phenomenon. This method of research is often used for analyzing human behavior and reason of such behavior (Creswell, 2003). Thus, qualitative method uses different types of data collection method such as participant observation, in-depth interviews and focus groups. Particular method is employed to suit the type of data required for the study (Silverman, 2004). Moreover, participant observation is appropriate for collecting data for natural behaviors; in-depth interviews are useful for collecting data on individuals’ personal histories, perspectives and experiences; and focus groups are effective for collecting data on the cultural norms of groups. These types of data methods often develop field notes, video recordings and transcripts.
Unlike qualitative research approach that leads to studies that are different from designed using the more traditional approach the quantitative research methodology is regarded as traditional approach and often leads to hypothesis-testing research. Quantitative research methodology involves systematic empirical investigation of data, phenomena and properties while also investigate their relationships. Thus, this method relies less on the descriptive data such as interviews, small number of questionnaires, focus groups and case studies but it rather focuses on the large data collection and numerical and statistics data analysis.
However, both research methodologies are effective in terms of providing results but qualitative research approach leads to hypothesis-generating research while quantitative research approach leads to hypothesis-testing research this research study will use quantitative research approach through which large data will be collected and data will be analyzed using numerical data forms.
For this study qualitative data will be collected and will be used for literature review. Through data collection researcher has opportunity to use different sources of evidence. The data collection method is divided into two namely primary data and secondary data. The literature review of this study will use secondary data. According to Borlaug (2007), secondary data is the collection of information using different sources such as books, journals, reports, documents, articles and website. For the literature review of this study different journal articles will be accessed using American Journal of Nursing; moreover, other database will also be used such as EBSCHOHOST and JSTOR. Books will be accessed online using Google.